In early 1960, distribution and population of scientists and engineers are regarded as vital indicators when S&T index was designed. These human resources equipped with high skills are the essence to spread and develope knowledge as well as the key to progress in techonology and develope economy. (Canberra Manual, 1995:3). She Figures define scientists and engineers as:


  1. Positions related to natural sciences, mathematics, and engineering, which is attributed to category 21 of ISCO-88.
  2. Positions related to life science and health, which is attributed to category 22 of ISCO-88.


DGBAS replied that no associated statistics have been evaluated due to lack of samples and representatives.